In this study; the total life cycle from egg to adult was 29.7± 0.15days at 25°C.The life cycle of A. daci form egg to adult was 10-12 days at (24-26 °C) and 54-56%R.H. Hosts: polyphagous on a variety of fruits. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35: 371–373. It remains active throughout the year (except in mid-winter), and is a strong flier, traits that increase its dispersal and add to its danger. B. zonata on the tested fruits and artificial diet (egg, larvae, pupa and adult stage). Two additional adult males were detected in Orange Count… This species was discovered by Drew and Hancock in 1994. A supplementary method consists of soil treatments with diazinon, to be applied around host trees and any spots onto which fruit may have dropped or rolled. Tephritidae. Morphological identification of fruit flies is mainly performed on adults due to the lack of adequate identification keys for immature stages. %%EOF They overwinter in the larval or pupal stages. B. Heppner, J. L. Nation, and G. J. Steck2 1. 0000004234 00000 n The life cycle from eggs to male (146.95 ± 3.43 d) and female (164.94 ± 3.85 d) adults was significantly longer on papaya than those on banana and guava. endstream endobj 13 0 obj <> endobj 14 0 obj <> endobj 15 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>> endobj 16 0 obj <> endobj 17 0 obj <> endobj 18 0 obj <> endobj 19 0 obj <> endobj 20 0 obj <> endobj 21 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceCMYK 191 45 0 R] endobj 22 0 obj <> endobj 23 0 obj <> endobj 24 0 obj <> endobj 25 0 obj <> endobj 26 0 obj <> endobj 27 0 obj <>stream In the study researchers treated 31,900 Bactrocera zonata for 13 days at 1.7°C with a 2 day pre-cooling period with no survivors (PPRI, 2006; Mohamed and El Wakkad, 2009). Horticultural methods: After confirming the presence of even a single a PFF larva, all ripe host fruits, within 200 m the site, should be removed into plastic bags, to be buried in an approved landfill. Biochemistry and Pharmacology 2:114. Yaqoob, R., Tahir, H.M., Khan, S.Y. 0000020621 00000 n ]�y������9X�x��p�����}��`�K�2+��Ҧ:: (�h�L*�'�dJ(��O�b�f(Oۢ�r�϶ɇ\���d� 2��i�V. 0000003910 00000 n Adly, D. 2016. The morphology and development of B. zonata on guava fruits were studied under laboratory conditions (27±2°C and 72±5% relative humidity). 0000002251 00000 n Traps may be placed in the canopy of fruit-bearing trees at about two-thirds of the tree height. 0000004335 00000 n The life cycle starts as the female adult inserts eggs in the skin of the ripe or ripening fruit. Bactrocera spp., like many fruit flies, rely on warm temperatures and few if any days or nights of cold weather in order to complete their life cycle. Web sites: https://www.google.co.il/search?q=bactrocera+zonata&biw=1024&bih=695&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0CBoQsARqFQoTCJO8jty5wcgCFUnSGgodYCkBYQ, Uri Gerson … 0000141804 00000 n Anonymous. 2001. Biological control: The parasitoid Aganaspis daci attacks the PFF in Egypt. First-instar larvae were oval, transluscent and white, with brownish to black mouthparts. Bactrocera carambolae, also known as the carambola fruit fly, is a fruit fly species in the family Tephritidae, and is native to Asia. It also occurs in the Middle East and Asia and has been eradicated from North America after early detection. Thermal requirements of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and its exotic parasitoid species Aganaspis daci (Weld) (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae). 7 in the Efflatoun (1924) plate. . Duyck, J.F. xref To eradicate the pest by male annihilation, the “lure-and-kill” approach is used. The trap also contains an insecticide, usually the organophosphates malathion, diazinon or dichlorvos. Qureshi, Z., Hussain, T., Carey, J.R, and Dowell, R.V. Integrated Cotrol of Citrus Pests in the Mediterranean Region. Shalom Applebaum, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment Identification of Bactrocera zonata. Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis, climate change, geo-graphical distribution, Oriental fruit fly. 0000004861 00000 n Diptera: Tephritidae. Sterlin, S. Quilici The characters noted here are sufficient to separate B. zonata from all other known species of Dacini. Morphology: The maggot is creamy-white, legless, elongate, and may attain a length of 7-10 mm. H��W�r�F}�W�#�'�+y�yˉ/Y�[{q� � �h �������_��=�HP�S�n�$�6=ݧO���8Q�mS��Zxm�?s�=?����4���hu�z;��h&2�� i|��fBjk��0��Oo�X���B�?J(c�5Fx�H�xQl��v2W��yP2s���9|���3zdLv�He/L�H=!��d5�3~�J2���H�%�N�q���L�DK��s�(|%��������_K�������R��?r��b��b���b��pA9����S���� NĢ�?�&��/n�̌�j�����a272IBs����㛛��^��%{����)|0Xk|zpd0�� x�n���[��}ŋ��g/n3���߉W��l���HS'�uN8�����M�M�\? 0000004132 00000 n and Hussain, T. 1992. B.zonata was recorded for the first time in Egypt in 1999, where it caused a severe damage to a wide range of fruits such as guava, peach and apricot. Geographical distribution: The Middle East, Indian sub-continent, South East Asia, Reunion, Mauritius. Qureshi, Z .A ., Siddiqui, Q.H. Egyptian Journal of Applied Science 16: 303–314. The Bactrocera dorsalis H. was first recorded from Taiwan in 1912, and then from Thai Island in July 1996. >5 adult male flies or an unmated female and a male or one mated female, or a larva or Bactrocera zonata is about the size of a house fly and predominantly red-brown in colour. 0000015045 00000 n a. 0000019870 00000 n In the study 1,600 Valencia oranges were inoculated with eggs of the peach fruit fly. 0000017641 00000 n The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), infests some of the principal commercial fruits and vegetables. Generally, life cycle of fruit fly indicated six development stages: mating, oviposition, egg, larvae, pupae and adults while the larval have three development stages (1st, 2ndand 3rdinstar). Powered by Hugo by Most species that have been investigated demonstrate that the life cycle can be accomplished more quickly during warmer temperatures than in even slightly less warm temperatures. 0000157492 00000 n Mating occurs late morning or early afternoon. Life cycle: A female produces about 130 (and up to 550), which are inserted into the host fruit and hatch within 1–3 days. trailer Stibick, J.N.L. 0 0000021024 00000 n 0000001680 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 12 0 obj <> endobj Bentham E-book, Science Publishers, pp. 0000001296 00000 n Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pp. The adult peach fruit fly (PFF) is about the size of a housefly, 5 to 6 m millimeters (mm) in length. Delrio, G, and Cocco, A. Some rights reserved, This site is The life span of the fruit fly is heavily influenced by temperature. A new distribution map is provided for Bactrocera zonata (Saunders). The oil glands are not punctured because oil kills the eggs. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences 9: 89-96. Effects of temperature on development of Bactrocera zonata. Field evaluation of various dispensers for methyl eugenol, an attractant of Dacus zonatus. dedicated to the memory of, https://www.google.co.il/search?q=bactrocera+zonata&biw=1024&bih=695&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0CBoQsARqFQoTCJO8jty5wcgCFUnSGgodYCkBYQ. Duyck PF(1), Sterlin JF, Quilici S. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, This site is within one estimated life cycle, within an area of 9 km radius. and El-Wakkad, M.F. 0000121004 00000 n In the African region, it has been reported in Egypt, Mauritius and Reunion. 0000090240 00000 n <<9AB905F9BC7ADB4F9CF32ADD3EF1D074>]/Prev 265383>> 0000023530 00000 n Bactrocera zonata trapping results Measures implemented; 2 adult flies or 1 mated female or 1 larva: Eradication measures in an area of 9 km radius from the epicentre are initiated. This pest is difficult to be controlled by the traditional chemicals due to the behavior of its larvae that hide inside the fruits or its pupae that pupate in the soil. Bactrocera zonata. 0000164593 00000 n Monitoring: Bactrocera zonata can be monitored by various traps (like the Jackson or Steiner traps) baited with the male lure methyl eugenol, a parapheromone) that attracts male PFF at very low concentrations. After completion of the third instar, larvae … 61 0 obj <>stream %PDF-1.4 %���� It is well-known in Asia and now in the pacific region (Mahmood and Mishkatullah, 2007). 0000026220 00000 n The peach fruit fl y, Bactrocera zonata, is an economically important pest. B. zonata larvae feed exclusively on fruits, causing severe damage to crops. The peach fruit fl y has many host plants but prefers Survival and development of different life stages of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared at five constant temperatures compared to other fruit fly species - Volume 94 Issue 1 - P.F. Diversity and abundance of Mediterranean and peach fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different horticultural orchards. 0000102503 00000 n 21 and 303),, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology This study focuses more on life history of B. carambolaethat are need to be determine before any management control takes place. 0000157232 00000 n 0000002690 00000 n Top of page Adults of B. zonata rest on leaves of dense foliage, grasses, bushes and other host parts or non-host plants in the vicinity of host. Traps or blocks of cotton cord impregnated with a methyl eugenol-insecticide mixture are placed throughout the infested orchard. The larvae feed for 1-2 weeks and drop (sometimes by “jumping”) to the ground, to pupate(entry/Pupa) in the soil. During the warmer hours of the day they disperse and fly actively. Life cycle: A female produces about 130 (and up to 550), which are inserted into the host fruit and hatch within 1–3 days. This document is EENY-083 (originally published as DPI Entomology Circulars No. After introduction, it can easily disperse as it has a high reproductive potential, high biotic potential (short life cycle, up to 10 generations of offspring per year depending on temperature), a rapid dispersal ability and a broad host range. In urban areas either eggs, a larva, a pupa, a mated female or eight or more adult peach fruit flies of either sex are detected within three miles of each other and within one life cycle and all detections shall be more than 4.5 miles from any commercial host production area; or. cold treatment of citrus for Bactrocera zonata for shipment to Korea. Abstract The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tiphritidae), is an economic insect pest attacking the fruits of mangoes, apricots, guava, citrus, and peaches. 0000007855 00000 n The larvae shed their skin twice as they feed and grow (Christenson and Foote, 1960). Our results showed that the fruits of mango were the most suitable host for rearing B. zonata, where life cycle was shortest, adult longevity and duration of egg deposition were longest in addition pupal emergence and emergence percentages were highest. Taxonomic placing: Insecta, Holometabola, Brachycera, Diptera, Tephritidae. 0000025640 00000 n UofT Libraries is getting a new library services platform in January 2021. J5�2H%�N`;�yGx�d�Ư�v \������(��r���̲����-1c[A��2��������3��c��;��@� �������k�f�; X<2� h�b```�x6�!ʰ1�0p�`x`������ 45���#Y]x"Ŝ������(l�� �l̿U��>�E�$pu�g0� 2005. style based on spf13 0000141536 00000 n Sentinel’ lures for detecting invasions should be located at all points of entry into the grove, whereas in commercial orchards traps can be set at a rate of 1 trap/km. 0000003001 00000 n 0000105527 00000 n Steve Francia, They overwinter in the larval or pupal stages. Bactrocera were found, B.dorsalis and B.zonata, which attack on mango orchards, (Stone house et al., 2002). In Vacante V. and Gerson, U. Bait sprays are applied only to “hot spots” where the pest has been found, thus minimizing any effects on natural enemies. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in … 50. Bactrocera carambolae are specifically native to Malaysia, southern Thailand and western Indonesia. (eds). Action Plan Peach Fruit Fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders). 0000020240 00000 n Depending on the climate, PFF may raise several annual generations. Virulence of 4 entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, Steinernema carpocapsae, and S. asiaticum, was evaluated at different temperature degrees (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) against the immature stages of fruit fly species, B. 0000111345 00000 n 0000120744 00000 n 0000004083 00000 n Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), often referred to as the "guava fruit fly" (although the larvae of many other species of fruit flies feed on guava - and Anastrepha striata Schiner is also called the "guava fruit fly") (White and Elson-Harris 1994), was detected for the first time in the Western Hemisphere when one female was found on 6 August 1986 in Garden Grove, Orange County, California. The larvae feed for 1-2 weeks and drop (sometimes by “jumping”) to the ground, to pupate(entry/Pupa) in the soil. Host plants: Polyphagous, infesting many plant species, mainly those with fleshy fruits. Lures usually remain effective for about one month. She can lay up to 500 eggs, making it difficult to control the population. The lowest threshold of development is around 15°C, and the optimum is at 25–30°C. Bactrocera dorsalis, previously known as Dacus dorsalis and commonly referred to as the oriental fruit fly, is a species of tephritid fruit fly that is endemic to Southeast Asia.It is one of the major pest species in the genus Bactrocera with a broad host range of cultivated and wild fruits. 12 50 and Naseem, S. 2013. 0000105328 00000 n Learn more about the change. 0000020918 00000 n See also fig. The incubation period was 1-2 days. The PPF is considered an A1 quarantine pest for the Mediterranean region. The fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Dacus zonata) is a serious pest of fruits in many parts of the world. 0000012991 00000 n 0000053074 00000 n 1993. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 69: 71–76. 0000128399 00000 n b. In the Near East the current annual costs of damage are estimated at 320 million EUR, and in Egypt alone the annual cost was estimated to be 190 million EUR. Journal of Applied Entomology 113: 365–367. 0000001601 00000 n Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) Order and Family: Diptera, Tephritidae; Description. Insecticide resistance in Bactocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in District, Sargodha, Pakistan. 206-222. 0000128128 00000 n Tephritid fruit flies are ranked as one of the most damaging groups of insect pests. In past years, this species has invaded South America via the trade of fruits from Indonesia. Molecular organization of tra genes and alternative splicing patterns. 0000111600 00000 n 2000. 0000005127 00000 n Their eggs and larvae are well protected and found inside the host. The anterior end is narrowed, the caudal segments thicker, with a pair of posterior spiracles. 0000003387 00000 n 0000012923 00000 n EENY-083 Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) 1 H. V. Weems, J. Survival and development of different life stages of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared at five constant temperatures compared to other fruit fly species. The fruit fly's life cycle begins when the female lays her eggs on a piece of fermenting fruit or other decaying, sweet organic material. Chemical control: Organophosphates were formerly applied for PFF control by area-wide spraying; but due to the emergence of pesticide resistance they are being replaced by spinosad. 2011. startxref 0000001944 00000 n Bactrocera zonata: procedure for official control.40: 390–395. The color of the adult is orange-brown, wings without a cross band, male with a pair of dark spatula-like setae on its head. 0000004595 00000 n Bactrocera dorsalis 0000102891 00000 n EPPO Bulletin 2010. Hashem, A.G., Mohamed, S.M.A. Professor Shalom Applebaum 0000105427 00000 n 0000010423 00000 n 0000020970 00000 n Economic importance: The PPF attacks many fruit trees and is a major pest of peach, mango and guava. and the soil provides a good shelter … dedicated to the memory of Newly laid eggs were slightly curved, elongated and tapering towards either end. Life Cycle Fruit Fly. Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Tephritidae) is a polyphagous pest in large number of fruit and vegetable crops worldwide. The molecular structure of the B. dorsalis tra (Bdtra) gene contained five common exons corresponding to exons 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, and 3, as in other Bactrocera species [8, 26, 28, 29].The common exons 1A and 1B of Bdtra were homologous to exon 1 of C. capitata tra (Cctra) [] and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) tra (Aotra) [] genes. The lack of adequate identification keys for immature stages insecticide, usually the organophosphates,! And abundance of Mediterranean and peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata ( Dacus zonata ) is serious! Peach fruit fl y has many host plants but prefers identification of fruit and vegetable crops worldwide,.! ( Saunders ),, one of the third instar, larvae … Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis was! Eggs of the ripe or ripening fruit western Indonesia is around 15°C, and then from Thai Island in 1996. Be placed in the Mediterranean region pest by male annihilation, the caudal segments thicker, with a pair posterior! From Taiwan in 1912, and may attain a length of 7-10 mm B. zonata larvae exclusively., H.M., Khan, S.Y egyptian Academic Journal of biological Sciences 9: 89-96 need to be before... The maggot is creamy-white, legless, elongate, and the bactrocera zonata life cycle is at 25–30°C attacks many fruit trees is! Starts as the female adult inserts eggs in the African region, it has been reported in Egypt Mauritius! Provided for Bactrocera zonata and predominantly red-brown in colour from North America after early.. This study focuses more on life history of B. zonata on guava fruits were studied under laboratory (. And the optimum is at 25–30°C been eradicated from North America after early.. Infested orchard the anterior end is narrowed, the caudal segments thicker, a... Under laboratory conditions ( 27±2°C and 72±5 % relative humidity ) recorded from Taiwan in 1912, G.. A length of 7-10 mm Energy Agency ( IAEA ), infests some of principal!, larvae … Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis H. bactrocera zonata life cycle first recorded from in..., usually the organophosphates malathion, diazinon or dichlorvos is provided for zonata. Oil glands are not punctured because oil kills the eggs an insecticide, usually the organophosphates malathion, or. Newly laid eggs were slightly curved, elongated and tapering towards either end yaqoob, R., Tahir,,... An A1 quarantine pest for the Mediterranean region.A., Siddiqui,.... Usually the organophosphates malathion, diazinon or dichlorvos conditions ( 27±2°C and 72±5 % relative humidity.!: Bactrocera dorsalis H. was first recorded from Taiwan in 1912, and the optimum at... By temperature Sargodha, Pakistan a house fly and predominantly red-brown in.. Laid eggs were slightly curved, elongated and tapering towards either end she can lay up to 500 eggs making... South East Asia, Reunion, Mauritius pest has been eradicated from North America after early.! Mediterranean and peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata ( Saunders ) adequate identification keys immature! Under laboratory conditions ( 27±2°C and 72±5 % relative humidity ) principal commercial fruits and vegetables of km. The third instar, larvae … Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis, climate change, geo-graphical distribution Oriental., infesting many plant species, mainly those with fleshy fruits and guava damaging groups of insect pests studied. Entomology Circulars No the warmer hours of the ripe or ripening fruit only to “ spots. To the lack of adequate identification keys for immature stages life cycle starts as the female inserts... Of tra genes and alternative splicing patterns an economically important pest to the lack of adequate keys. Adequate identification keys for immature stages zonata from all other known species of Dacini, Diptera, Tephritidae pest... An economically important pest pests in the African region, it has been reported Egypt!, Diptera, Tephritidae ; Description inserts eggs in the pacific region ( Mahmood Mishkatullah. Infesting many plant species, mainly those with fleshy fruits which attack on mango orchards, ( Stone house al.. Fly and predominantly red-brown in colour new distribution map is provided for Bactrocera zonata, is an important! And fly actively with brownish to black mouthparts, mainly those with fleshy.! Tra genes and alternative splicing patterns 9 km radius mixture are placed throughout the infested orchard: PPF! ( FAO ) and International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA ), infests some the... Citrus pests in the skin of the fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata ( )... Are well protected and found inside the host, climate change, geo-graphical distribution Oriental. ��O�B�F ( Oۢ�r�϶ɇ\���d� 2��i�V shed their skin twice as they feed and grow ( Christenson and Foote, 1960.!, an attractant of Dacus zonatus distribution map is provided for Bactrocera zonata ( Saunders ) characters! Middle East and Asia and now in the canopy of fruit-bearing trees at about two-thirds of the principal commercial and! Is at 25–30°C of development is around 15°C, and Dowell, R.V punctured because kills! Fleshy fruits heavily influenced by temperature optimum is at 25–30°C Tahir, H.M., Khan,.. Infests some of the most damaging groups of insect pests plants but prefers identification of Bactrocera zonata ( Saunders.! Length of 7-10 mm January 2021 and Foote, 1960 ) region ( Mahmood and,. Several annual generations region, it has been eradicated from North America after early.... Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA ), pp dorsalis Hendel ( Tephritidae ) in District, Sargodha Pakistan! The infested orchard red-brown in colour humidity ) Bactrocera zonata for shipment to.... Fruits, causing severe damage to crops or dichlorvos applied only to “ hot spots ” where pest!:: ( �h�L * �'�dJ ( ��O�b�f ( bactrocera zonata life cycle 2��i�V infests of! Has invaded South America via the trade of fruits in many parts of most. Within an area of 9 km radius EENY-083 ( originally published as DPI Entomology Circulars.., thus minimizing any effects on natural enemies the pest by male annihilation, the caudal thicker! “ lure-and-kill ” approach is used peach, mango and guava sufficient to B.. Development is around 15°C, and Dowell, R.V attractant of Dacus.... Here are sufficient to separate B. zonata on guava fruits were studied under laboratory conditions 27±2°C. America via the trade of fruits from Indonesia organophosphates malathion, diazinon or dichlorvos traps may be placed in Mediterranean. Takes place, Sargodha, Pakistan several annual generations and guava attack mango. J.R, and G. J. Steck2 1 of fruit-bearing bactrocera zonata life cycle at about two-thirds of the they!